-the future digital ecology
based on decentralization and POST
This paper describes a new digital ecology adhering to decentralization principles for the future digital society in the era of human-computer integration. We believe that a truly decentralized community, combined with the latest high-performance computing, Internet, cryptography, and blockchain technologies, can form a powerful force for the advancement of human society. The basis of this organization is N-Chain(Ninth Chain), a blockchain with features such as decentralization, POST(proof of space and time), and network robustness, which is more in line with Satoshi Nakamoto's principles.
When pioneers of computer science such as Wiener, Turing, Shannon, and von Neumann looked into the future of the digital world, they were already considering the role of computers in an era of human-machine integration. Licklider and his teammates, based on the vision of the union of the human world and information, came together to create Arpanet, which is the prototype of our current Internet world. Likewise, Bitcoin originated from the joint explorations of cryptographers and computer experts over the last century. Currently, artificial intelligence, the Internet, and blockchain technology are rapidly coming together, and in this context, the N-Chain was born.
Together, we form the N-Chain community with the goal of upholding Satoshi Nakamoto's and Bitcoin's volition to reshape the global financial system and bring the power of mathematics to the world. N-Chain should never be controlled by any person or organization, but rather maintained and advanced by all nodes together, with true transparency.
N-Chain was born from the generous donations and hard work of community supporters, and we will keep this in mind at all times in the future. In order to prevent any kind of monopoly, cheating in the future digital world, the impartiality of N-Chain will be unprecedented, even for the applications on the N-Chain.
The value of the N-Chain is based entirely on community members, miners, and a wide range of applications. We will not use traditional financial means, nor will we pursue traditional financial listing and other types of equity behavior.
We are an incremental force in the digital currency field, driving the conversion of the entire financial world and even the physical world to the era of human-computer integration through the underlying technology. In the early days of computers, pioneers such as Wiener, Turing, Shannon, von Neumann, Licklider and others have seen the future of human-machine integration, and we need to work hard to turn these ideals into reality.
As the value anchor of the digital asset world, the concept and technology of Bitcoin is of course the underlying foundation of N-Chain. Sensing the arrogance and fragility of the traditional human financial system during the 2008 global financial crisis, Satoshi Nakamoto proposed Bitcoin, the first mature digital currency or digital asset system, based on decades of early development of digital currencies. Bitcoin is the culmination of various early digital currency prototype projects, although it was originally intended to remove the credit role of traditional financial institutions, while in fact it is also dissolving the credit role of states and governments. Bitcoin attributes the basis of value, and all value exchange, to cryptography, and as long as the principles and difficulty of cryptography are not breached (e.g., new cracking methods such as quantum computing), and as long as most of the computing power is concentrated in this chain, then it is very difficult to break.
For more than a decade, the Satoshi Nakamoto Consensus has proven that a global community can form an unprecedentedly strong consensus. The growth of Bitcoin has proven that blockchain technology is powerful and effective, but the limited scalability of the Bitcoin system itself provides room for a new crop of blockchain projects. From a decentralization perspective, Satoshi Nakamoto proposed to build a strong chain based on CPU power, but this CPU power is more concentrated than he imagined, with the network-wide proof of power mainly concentrated in miners that hold a large number of Asic machines. At the same time, this huge consumption of electricity is often environmentally unfriendly.
The birth of Ethereum has turned blockchain technology into a bridge for the full transformation of the traditional world to the digital world. Defi, NFT, and even the meta-universe have all become possible on the basis of Ethereum and similar technologies, and the impact of this digital wave on human society is extremely far-reaching. However, the Ethereum’s POW model is equally energy-intensive, while the emergence of professional Ethernet miners makes graphics cards no longer idle in terms of arithmetic power and capacity, but instead squeezes the supply of graphics cards for gamers and parallel computing applications users. In order to overcome this problem, Ethereum is turning to POS mechanism, but the stability of this model still needs time to be tested.
The new generation of digital ecology should be based on a green mining process with powerful application capabilities, which can be closely integrated with high performance computing, Internet, modern financial technology and artificial intelligence technology. In the future meta-universe system, whether it is traditional human, human-machine symbiosis or non-carbon-based lifeforms, all need this new digital ecology as the foundation. The POST proof method adopted by N-Chain is one of the most stable and environmentally friendly technologies in the current blockchain underlying technology. Since there is currently no arithmetic advantage similar to that of ASIC miners for ordinary CPUs in terms of storage technology, this storage verification is more equitable. As long as most of the storage is concentrated on N-Chain, its robustness is extremely difficult to be attacked. All block information will be disseminated across the network as much as possible, and when a node goes offline, it can still use this longest chain.
With the expansion and application of the N-Chain, it will be able to realize a large amount of wealth. The greatest wealth in the future is not the possession of goods, but the global consensus of credit. The core significance of the blockchain revolution is the ability to form a new wealth of data.
1、Proof of Space and Time
POST is a very popular underlying blockchain technology in recent years, which is divided into two parts: space and time.
Proof of space is a way to prove that you keep some unused storage space on your hard disk. A miner or farmer on the N-Chain network will plot the unused space on the hard drive by installing software that generates and stores a set of cryptographic numbers on the disk as a plot. When a new block is broadcast on N-Chain, farmers or miners scan their plots to see if they have a number close to the new challenge number derived from the previous block. This operation of checking spatial proofs is fast and efficient. Farmers can farm petabyte-level plot files on a common computer. The probability of winning a block is the percentage of the total space of the entire network that a miner has per challenge, with an average of 4608 challenges won per day. In terms of validation, the space proof will randomly select the validating miner who validates the next block of transactions.
Existing storage type projects, such as IPFS, already occupy a large amount of storage space, but we believe that the storage space available to the future N-Chain will be of ZB level. In order to avoid the over-occupation of storage space to form a new waste of resources, we will upgrade our base algorithm in the future in an effort to store as much other cryptographic storage information submitted by users as possible while completing the POST process.
Since proof of space require very little time to query, in order to prevent farmers with a lot of space from creating alternate proof information to cheat, N-Chain applies proof of time at the same time. Time proofs require actual uniform time, similar to the "atomic clock" time on N-Chain, and this time information is passed between blocks. The key idea of VDF is that it requires sequential computation, so common parallel computing techniques or devices such as GPU/ASIC acceleration do not yield gains. Because the fastest one will always finish first, only one Time-lord is needed on the network to complete a block and move the chain forward. Proof of time also adds the additional assurance that the verifier for the next block will be chosen in a completely unpredictable way, so users can have confidence that it is highly unlikely that the party interested in their current transaction will be chosen as the next verifier. However, time servers (Time-lords) can also be attacked, so there is also a need to set up as many Time-lords as possible in an effort to decentralize. We encourage every supporter in the community to run a VDF server (Time-lords) to add more redundancy and security to the network.
The difficulty of work on the blockchain of the N-Chain network is dynamically adjusted so that the target time for 32 blocks to complete averages 10 minutes, of which there will be 9 to 14 transaction blocks. The farming difficulty is adjusted according to the size of the network space and the speed of the fastest Time-lord to maintain the regularity of the target time. With either variation, if blocks are released too quickly, the difficulty will increase. If blocks are completed too slowly, the difficulty decreases. As the size of the storage space in the nine-chain network rises, farmers can expect the reward for a specific amount of storage (e.g., per T or per P) to fall.
2. A simple argument for the superiority of POST
Before discussing POST methods, the core principles and operational basis of proof-of-work need to be revisited. For the underlying consensus principle Byzantine consensus, participating nodes hold the same voting rights for determining the choice of each consensus data, and the decision method is that the more wins. All of this serves the goal of forming consensus data.
The alternative data to be voted on also comes from these participating nodes (i.e., farmers). In theoretical terms, the voting mechanism can complete the entire consensus data formation, but for the actual real world the participating nodes cannot gather an infinite number of alternatives for voting, i.e., the alternative consensus data must be constructed in such a way that only a few people can submit a valid consensus and these alternatives need to be in some form that all participants can become the submitters of the alternatives.
The first requirement for such a voting mechanism can be summarized as a short list of candidates, which must be limited to the entire group of participants but must be able to be formed. The limited list of alternatives is filtered through the proof among all participants for the voting process. Because of the need to select alternatives from a large number of participants, it is required that a valid proof must be expensive or rare so that the voting participants can choose within a small range. Normally, participants should have the same probability of finding a valid proof for voting under equal power conditions, or the probability of finding a valid proof is equal for equal power.
From here comes the second requirement for a practical voting mechanism: for a large number of users voting, there is a need to find a simple way to check the validity of the proof. Cryptography provides the mathematical basis for such a scenario, and proofs formed through a hashing process are the current alternative methods and processes for forming and verifying blockchains, with hash providing the asymmetric computational cost feature that underlies Byzantine consensus practice - proofs are hard, checks are easy.
In traditional proof mechanisms, exclusive computational resources are typically used to form proofs for building limited alternative data, such as CPU/GPU/ASIC, which are non-reusable computational resources at a single point in time, and thus must be equipped with sufficient hardware and the energy required to run them to form a voting network of sufficient size. This resource allocation is necessary to form alternative data in terms of computational complexity, so the operation of the blockchain leads to a linear increase in hardware investment and energy consumption as the computing power of participants increases. The number of participants and the arithmetic power also represent the wide acceptance of the consensus data formed. Here we can conclude that in the proof mechanism, the extensiveness of a blockchain's recognition, i.e., the number of participating nodes and the size of its arithmetic power, are the key indicators for assessing the acceptance of a chain. For a traditional proof mechanism (PoW), for the same energy-computing power efficiency.
More overall energy consumption indicates that the chain's data is recognized and supported by more resources (funding).
A higher number of full-node IPs implies a wide range of participation and data copy redundancy.
POST offers a new way of thinking in the mechanism of POST proofs. For the alternative construction process in fact only requires to achieve alternative scarcity, so it is not required that this computational process needs to be done in real time; it can also be done by a pre-constructed lookup table. For a single chain, if we expand the whole process in time, the table formed by the prior computation in fact stores the computational power at the time of constructing the lookup table. This arithmetic storage changes the investment time of computational resources in the timeline. The actual proof requires only a small amount of computational power to complete the verification. Theoretically, if each arithmetic store is used once in the subsequent proof process (which is of course an unreasonable estimate), POST only changes the point-in-time requirement for the use of computational power in time, so that the energy required to run POST and PoW for the same size voting network is equal under this assumption. However, since the computation results are stored to disk, for a single point in time the same arithmetic storage is available to serve multiple proof processes. Therefore, with the same resources, a POST network of the same size can run N sets of consensus data simultaneously, which makes the original linear energy and resource consumption, which makes the formation of consensus data on a single chain in fact becomes more economical and environmentally friendly, as POST resources run parallel chains from 1 to N. The fact that the cost of running a single chain is only 1/N of the original. This is certainly more economical, efficient, and environmentally friendly.
3、The application layer
Without good applications on a public chain, we cannot talk about a real ecology. Bitcoin and Ethereum ecologies are the classics of blockchain technology for large-scale applications, and a large number of community members and developers are already familiar with the features and codes of these two projects. Therefore, we will strive to be compatible with the programming tools of Bitcoin and Ethereum, as well as the advantages of other well-known projects, in terms of the application development language of the N-Chain.
In addition, we are also aware of the development of private chains. Private chains are chains that are built with regulatory restrictions and security in mind. We want to actively connect and interact with these chains, and they are part of the whole digital network world in the future.
We believe that application scenarios such as financial institutions, enterprises, DeFi, NFT, etc. will work best on N-Chain.
4、For the full use of storage space
The global annual shipments of mechanical hard drives exceed 1ZB, and the SSD market is also expanding rapidly. With the development of the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence technology, as well as the traditional Internet and mobile Internet generating a large amount of video and even virtual reality data, the requirements for storage will grow tremendously. The storage target of N-Chain is also ZB level, because we believe that decentralized blockchain technology has native and powerful vitality, and the storage space occupied for POST proof will keep absorbing storage capacity as the whole community and ecology expands, while a large number of applications built on the chain will generate or store a large amount of real and valid data, and the value generated by these storage arithmetic can provide each community and The value generated by these storage arithmetic can provide cheap, reliable and fast asset proof and services for each community and ecological participant
4、Adhere to the decentralized community
We, as a decentralized community, are the true executors of the spirit of Cypherpunk. We need supporters from all directions to contribute their own power to make the community progress. We will invest and support them with our endowment, but the most important thing will be their passion for open source, a spirit that existed in the infancy of modern computing, in the labs of MIT in Cambridge and in the garages of Silicon Valley. We believe that N-Chain will be the green currency of the digital world, the best partner and successor to Bitcoin, as long as we stay true to our community attributes. When our consensus is strong enough to cross borders and biases, then it will be the foundation for a fully digital existence of the future.
5. A Decentralized Strategy with No Pre-Mining
A large number of pre-mining goes against the decentralized spirit of blockchain technology. Therefore, we do not set up pre-mining, so early developers and active community users have to obtain NCH through mining. And considering the rapid growth of the Nine Chain since its creation, the mining advantage that early community users can obtain is minimal (the total capacity of the Nine Chain reached more than 100P within two weeks, which means that the users with 1P computing power entering at this time can mine no more than 100 NCH a day, and decaying at a rapid rate. In addition, in order to further balance the amount of coins held by the entire N-Chain community, we have launched a public donate endowment fund to attract supporters, especially those with larger holdings, to actively donate and contribute to technology development and community development.
6、Extendibility in high performance computing
A good ecological model should have continuous incremental output to our world. In the future, may we add the computing power of numerous CPUs, GPUs and even quantum computing devices to the Ni-Chain ecology? We think it is possible, as long as we can find a suitable model to combine them with the daily needs of the digital world. Absorbing the most powerful computing power and storage capacity possible to form an interstellar-level computing network will be an important direction for our continued efforts.
Design of mining rewards
Farming or mining rewards are released when blocks are generated on N-Chain. Our farming reward plan is directly modeled after Bitcoin's reward plan, which keeps the total number of NCHs at 21 million. The idealized schedule is as follows.
1. 64 NCHs will be generated every 10 minutes for the first three years after the mainnet launch
2. 32 NCHs will be generated every 10 minutes in the fourth to sixth years after the mainnet launch
3. 16 NCHs will be produced every 10 minutes from year 7 to year 9 after the main net launch
4. In years 10 to 12, 8 NCHs will be produced every 10 minutes
5. After the 12th year, 4 NCHs will be produced every 10 minutes
Digital Currency Exchanges
In the future, we will actively cooperate with several important and even the largest exchanges and build decentralized exchanges or protocols on the application layer of the Nine Chain. Considering the decentralized feature of the Nine Chain, the whole community or any participant will not gain excessive benefit from the transaction, but the exchange is a good platform to promote the Nine Chain to the whole digital ecology. In addition, considering the application demand after the ecology is expanded, the excellent exchange is also an important part of the whole ecology.
Donation Fund Management
This fund can only be used entirely for the development, promotion and technology sharing of the community. We encourage active donations from our community partners to give them a stronger sense of involvement and influence on the community. In the future, exclusive digital memorabilia such as NFT will be launched around the donation fund.
The use of donation fund must be collectively considered (currently in the core group), and future discussions about the management and use of the donation fund will be further refined in the community.
Major Events and Roadmap
1. July 2021. The N-Chain community originates from the miner community, and the community tries to farm the community on Testnet9. After the service and support for the Testnet9 was terminated, the community tweaked the code for the original Testnet9, removing the genesis pre-mining part as well as optimizing it for the exploding blocks of the NFT plots. Following the Bitcoin creation path, we mined the Genesis block of N-Chain on July 25, 2021 in a decentralized model with dozens of miners from the community.
2. August 2021. Through the community's joint publicity and promotion efforts, thousands of miners across the world have joined the N-Chain community as of August 10, 2021.
3. It is expected that in September, N-Chain community will reach a total capacity of 1EB, with more than 10,000 users worldwide, and the community endowment fund will exceed 10,000 NCH. one or more large centralized or decentralized exchanges will go live with NCH trading.
3. It is expected that in the fourth quarter of 2021, N-Chain will start the development of the application layer, and in the first quarter of 2022, a number of community applications will be released.
May the Force be with you
1、Satoshi Nakamoto: Bitcoin: a peer-to-peer electronic cash system.
Supporters of the N-Chain around the world, unite!
N-Chain was born a month ago.
In the month of August, the total capacity of N-Chain increased from 0 to 300P. Judging from the current momentum, 500P, or even 1EB, should be able to be achieved in September.
The number of our global nodes has increased from a few dozen at the time of creation to more than 20,000, and soon there will be 100,000 and 1 million.
We will be the first POST space-time proof public chain that is truly on a famous exchange in the form of a community project, and there will be countless firsts waiting for us in the future.
The price of NCH has also gone from 0 to 0.2 usdt. As more and more people join N-Chain community and understand the vision of N-Chain, I believe that the price and market value of NCH will rise as fast as Bitcoin.
However, are all these achievements the result of the efforts of any individual or organization? Not really.
The emergence and development of N-Chain is the hard work of thousands of supporters. Since its birth, Bean and all N-Chain miners involved in mining first block have been working hard to optimize and adjust the code, deploy N-Chain node environment, and increase capacity. Generally speaking, we already have a very strong global community and node network.
The community is the source of our strength. Only when everyone actively participates and contributes, N-Chain will be stronger and each participant can obtain greater benefits.
Now, N-Chain needs you. Use your vote to start the next stage of development of N-Chain!
Let us work together to help N-Chain successfully land on ZT. Then our goal for the next phase is 1EB!
Let's work together!
N-Chain will be listed on the ZT Global exchange sooner. As a global community that was born just a month ago, it is a proud achievement to be the first to land on a globally famous exchange.
However, this is just the first step of a lot of work ahead for N-Chain. We still need to continue strengthening our community and bringing in more supporters from various regions of the world. We also need to strengthen our infrastructure network to make it stronger, more advanced, and more unbreakable. We need to bring in a large number of developers and operators to make N-Chain a thriving ecosystem.
Human history has many great organizations, from the Middle East, Egypt, Greece, China, and other regions that have given birth to great civilizations and ideas. The Bitcoin community is just as great, and these pioneers of blockchain technology have overcome all kinds of skepticism and prejudice to build a true social foundation for a digital society.
Currently, it is a critical time for human society to transform from the material world to the digital world and the era of human-machine integration. New creations such as metaverse, artificial intelligence, and digital assets are rebuilding every part of our lives. The birth of N-Chain comes at the right time, and as our community continues to grow, we will be immensely powerful until the fire of decentralized, digital existence burns brightly in everyone's heart.
We are long-term investors and strivers, we are not short-term speculators, and together we will maintain and promote N-Chain until it is as great, if not greater, than the magnificent achievements of Bitcoin and Ethereum.
N-Chain supporters around the world, let's work together!
The Coming of Cambrian - Writing at the moment when the total network capacity of N-Chain exceeds 1EB
Soon, the total network capacity of Nine Chain will break through 1EB, which is undoubtedly a proud achievement for the N-Chain community, which has only been born for a month or so.
Since we started trading on ZT Global, our total capacity has accelerated, and as the AOFEX and Huobi trading process advances, more capacity and supporters will join us.
Mining pools are also on the move, and industry-leading pools are already offering or are preparing to offer N-Chain related services to users.
Our community has started setting up support teams in North America, Russia, Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, and our reach is expanding rapidly.
More and more supporters are applying to join our core development and promotion team. Without any compensation, our core community team is doing world-class work.
In summary, we believe we will exceed 2 EB of network-wide capacity in October and 5 EB by the end of the year, by which time we will be in the top three in the storage space.
It is exciting to see what we may achieve in the future. But what is even more exciting is that the n-chain ecosystem is about to enter the Cambrian era.
During the Cambrian period, some 500 million years ago, the Earth saw a huge population of organisms emerge over a period of more than 20 million years. Likewise, the N-Chain will also usher in a Cambrian-like ecological explosion period.
We will launch 9swap, a decentralized exchange on the N-Chain that will be able to open up transactions within the POST ecosystem and build the foundation of the defi space.
We will promote the Bridges project, which bridges the N-Chain with Binance Chain,Ethereum and other blockchains allowing millions of users to reach the N-Chain ecology.
We will drive the Planet of Art project, allowing the N-Chain to serve as the cornerstone for low-cost global distribution of NFT artworks by emerging talented artists.
These eco-applications will inevitably seem simple and primitive compared to the N-Chain ecosystem in a few years. However, they will be a key step in determining whether N-Chain can come out of a corner of the blockchain world and become a superstar. All the early miners and application supporters will also be extremely rewarded.
Let's unite and push the advent of our own Cambrian with even harder work!
空间证明是一种证明你在硬盘上保留一些未使用的存储空间的方式。九号链网络的矿工或农民会通过安装软件，将硬盘上未使用的空间绘制出来，软件会生成并将磁盘上的密码数字集合存储成地块。当一个新的区块在九号链上广播时，农民会扫描他们的地块，看看他们是否有一个与前一个区块衍生的新挑战号接近的数字。这种检查空间证明的操作速度很快，效率也很高。农民在一个普通计算机上就可以耕种PB级别的绘图文件。赢得区块的概率是指矿工每次挑战的空间占整个网络总空间的百分比，平均每天有 4608 次挑战获胜的机会。在验证方面，空间证明将随机选择验证下一个交易区块的验证矿工。
由于空间证明只需要很少的时间来查询，为了防止拥有大量空间的农民创建备用的空间证明信息来作弊，九号链同时应用了时间证明。时间证明需要实际的统一时间，类似于九号链上的“原子钟”时间，这一时间信息在区块之间传递。时间证明由一个可验证延迟函数VDF来实现，它需要一定的时间来计算，但验证速度非常快。VDF 的关键思想是它需要顺序计算，因此常用的并行计算技巧或设备，如 GPU/ASIC加速不会产生增益。，因为最快的那台总是会先完成，网络上只需要一台 Timelord 就可以完成一个区块并将链子向前推进。时间证明还增加了额外的保证，即下一个区块的验证者将以一种完全不可预测的方式被选择，因此用户可以有信心，对他们当前交易感兴趣的一方被选为下一个验证者的可能性非常小。但是，时间服务器(timelords)也有可能被攻击，因此也需要尽可能多的架设时间服务器，努力做到分散化。我们鼓励社区的每个支持者都运行一台 VDF 服务器（我们称之为 Timelords），为网络增加更多冗余和安全性。
九号链网络的区块链上的工作难度是动态调整的，所以 32 个区块完成的目标时间平均为 10 分钟,其中会有 9 到 14 个交易区块。耕种难度会根据网络空间的大小和最快的 Timelord 的速度进行调整，以保持目标时间的规律性。无论哪一个变化，如果区块释放速度过快，难度都会增加。如果区块完成得太慢，难度就会降低。随着九号链网络存储空间规模的上升，农民可以期待特定存储量（例如每T或者每P）的奖励会下降。
我们作为一个去中心化的社区，是 "Cypherpunks(赛博朋克) “精神的真正执行者。我们需要来自四面八方的支持者，贡献他们自己的力量让社区进步。我们会用我们的捐赠基金去投资和支持他们，但最重要的将是他们对于开源事业的激情，这种精神在现代计算机的萌芽阶段，在剑桥MIT的实验室和硅谷的车库中就已经存在。我们相信，只要我们坚持我们的社区属性，九号链将是数字世界的绿色货币，是比特币的最佳伙伴和继承者。当我们的共识强大到足以跨越国界和偏见，那么它将是未来的完全数字化生存的基础。
1、在主网启动后的前三年，每 10 分钟将产生64个NCH
3、在主网启动后的第 7 年至第 9 年，每 10 分钟将生产16个NCH
4、在第 10 年至第 12 年中，每 10 分钟将产生8个NCH
May the Force be with you
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